We spend so much money on the payment, maintenance and repair of the car, and you would think we would have a better relationship with our car. But knowing how our cars work and how to maintain them can be unbearable. All the parts, fluids, guidelines to follow, and things that might go wrong, make cars and garages look scary, but they do not have to be. You do not need to know your car like the back of your hand, but you should have some basic elements. To help you have more confidence in your car owners, here are five things you should know before driving:
The first thing
You need to know about your car is the year it was made, the brand and the specific model. It may seem like a no brainer, but you’ll be surprised how many people don’t know the information. They often make mistakes in years or models, which can lead to major errors. The fluids, parts and accessories needed to repair and maintain a car are based on the year, make and model of the vehicle, so it is important to know the exact information. The design, construction and model of a car will change significantly in a year, and so will the parts you need for your car.
The second thing
The best way to keep your car running well is to follow your car’s specific maintenance plan. Your schedule will tell you when to change the oil (no longer 3000 miles or every three months), when to check the fluid, and when to rotate the tires. Each vehicle has its own maintenance plan, which should be followed to maintain optimum performance, health and life. Your maintenance schedule is in your owner’s manual or in a separate manual that comes with your owner’s manual. Read carefully and check and replace the parts or fluids in the vehicle strictly according to the recommendations.
The third thing
Proper tire pressure is probably the most neglected maintenance problem for our cars. When the indicator light on the dashboard is on, we usually wait until the tank needs to be filled. That is when we did not have a breath, or we just didn’t want to. To be honest, I hate to inflate my tires as much as I hate refueling, but ignoring this light only makes it easier for us to flat or blow out, pick up nails on them, or wear our tires faster. Stop this bad habit now, because it will shorten the life of our tires and force us to buy them more frequently. Tires are expensive, but some tires can last more than 50,000 miles if you maintain them properly. On the other hand, make sure you don’t top up your tires!
The fourth thing
Your vehicle identification number (VIN) is the fingerprint of your car. It’s a 17 digit number that identifies your car’s date of manufacture, location, make, model, engine size, etc. The vehicle identification number (VIN) will follow the vehicle throughout its service life. You need to know where to find the number, but you don’t need to remember it. The easiest way to find it is to stand outside the car, on the driver’s side, and look at the corner of the dashboard, where it hits the windshield. Your VIN is useful when talking to machinery and insurance companies. If you want to buy a car or buy parts for it, you can use your vehicle identification number to find information.
The cylinder head is installed on the top of the cylinder block, sealing the cylinder from above and forming a combustion chamber. It is often in contact with high-temperature and high-pressure gas, so it bears a large thermal load and mechanical load. A cooling water jacket is made inside the cylinder head of the water-cooled engine, and the cooling water holes on the lower end surface of the cylinder head communicate with the cooling water holes of the cylinder block. Use circulating water to cool high temperature parts such as combustion chamber.
The cylinder head is also equipped with inlet and exhaust valve seats and valve guide holes for installing inlet and exhaust valves, as well as intake and exhaust channels. The cylinder head of the gasoline engine has holes for installing spark plugs, while the cylinder head of the diesel engine has holes for installing injectors. A camshaft bearing hole is also machined on the cylinder head of the overhead camshaft engine to install the camshaft.
The cylinder head is generally made of gray cast iron or alloy cast iron. The aluminum alloy has good thermal conductivity, which is beneficial to improve the compression ratio.
The cylinder head is an integral part of the combustion chamber. The shape of the combustion chamber has a great influence on the operation of the engine. Due to the different combustion modes of gasoline engines and diesel engines, the parts of the cylinder head that make up the combustion chamber differ greatly. The combustion chamber of the gasoline engine is mainly on the cylinder head, while the combustion chamber of the diesel engine is mainly in the pit on the top of the piston.
Processing technology of cylinder head
The engine cylinder head is one of the most critical parts in the engine. Its precision requirements are high, the processing technology is complex, and the quality of the processing directly affects the overall performance and quality of the engine. Therefore, the processing of the engine cylinder head is particularly important. The key parts of the valve seat ring and The processing of catheter holes is even more important.
The engine inlet and exhaust valve seats are important working parts to control the gas intake and exhaust discharge. During the working process, they will be subjected to the erosion of the airflow and the impact friction of the valve at high temperature. The working conditions are very bad: during normal operation, The valve seat ring is under a high temperature of (600~800) ℃ for a long time. High-temperature gas corrosion and parts deformation will cause the valve duct and seat cone to be damaged more severely, resulting in inadequate sealing of the valve. A large amount of energy is discharged with the discharge of high-temperature gas Wasted in vain, which greatly reduces the power of the engine. Therefore, the valve seat ring and the duct hole should have good high temperature wear resistance, corrosion resistance, heat transfer and high temperature strength, high temperature creep resistance, and a coefficient of thermal expansion matching the cylinder head. At the same time, if the center of the valve deviates too much from the center of the valve seat ring when the engine is working, the engine power and fuel consumption will increase, and at the same time, the wear of the valve and the duct hole will be accelerated. Therefore, the machining accuracy of the valve seat ring and the duct hole, especially the runout of the valve cone working cone facing the duct hole, stipulates strict tolerance limits.
The general requirements for the machining accuracy of the valve seat ring and the duct hole of the engine cylinder head are: the tolerance of the coaxiality of the gasoline engine is (0.015 ~ 0.025) mm; while the diesel engine is only (0.01 ~ 0.015) mm, and the cone runout is ( 0.03～0.05) mm, the hole accuracy grade is generally H7 grade. [
Maybe you’ve met countless O-rings in your lifetime. From cars to cameras, these doughnut shaped parts will soon be forgotten, but they will always be useful. They may be one of the biggest revolutions in mechanical engineering to date, enabling us to develop new machines, better products and safer working environments. So, what are O-rings for? Why are they so popular? Let’s see.
Uses of O ring seals
rings are used to block channels that may cause liquid or gas to escape. Place the O-ring in the groove, hold it in place, and compress between the two surfaces. There is no space for the gap or passage of the gas ring to be squeezed. When the system is under pressure, the O-ring is squeezed to the other side of the groove to keep a perfect seal even under very high or low pressure. The materials (elastomers) used in O-rings are naturally elastic and want to return to their original shape, so when the pressure stops, they will bounce back to their original position, keeping them sealed and ready for the next cycle. In short, in order to answer the question of what purpose O-rings are used for, they are used to seal liquids or gases and are the most effective way to ensure a solid and reliable seal.
How and where to find O-ring seal?
Because the O-ring is very good at preventing the free flow of liquid and gas, O-ring often appears in mechanical parts and processes, especially in the case of extremely low temperature or pressure. Some applications that have almost certainly come to mind may include engines, boilers, refrigerators and compressors. But O-rings also appear in some surprising places, such as:
Submersible: the O-ring in the submersible is the life-saving part of the respirator. Before each dive, divers check the O-ring on the neck of the tank to make sure it provides a good seal and delivers air to the regulator, not to the sea water.
Dental Implants: in dental implants, fluids need to be kept away from the implants to avoid pain or infection. To do this, they used a biomedical silicone O-ring to form a perfect seal and keep the new teeth safe.
Paintball Shooting: the paintball gun uses compressed air to fire pigment balls at unsuspecting enemies. To keep the air sealed and ensure a strong shot, use O-rings throughout the gun.
Beer Time: if you drink a pint in a bar on your way home from work (we don’t all like it), O-rings help you enjoy and relax. Without the O-ring, it would be impossible to transport beer from the coffin to the tap, or carbonate it to make a delicious bubble snack.
The substation is an important part of the power system, and its operation quality is related to the operation safety of the entire transmission line and the safety of people’s electricity consumption. The electrical equipment is the key to ensure the safe and stable operation of the substation. The relevant personnel need to scientifically grasp the installation technical points of the entire electrical equipment and continuously improve the technical level of installation.
With the continuous development and progress of society, the construction scale and number of substations have continued to rise, while at the same time, the number of various types of electrical equipment is also gradually increasing, and its installation quality is related to the quality and safety of the operation of the entire substation. Therefore, in order to ensure the stable operation of the substation, it is necessary to pay enough attention to the technical points and processes of the installation of electrical equipment and standardize the work of each link.
Substation electrical equipment
There are many electrical equipment involved in substations, such as main transformers, circuit breakers, cable lines, etc. Among them, the main transformer is a very important electrical equipment in the substation and the core equipment necessary for power transmission; circuit breakers can ensure the timely start and closing of various types of equipment, so that the power supply of the equipment with failure problems can be closed in time, which does not cause the entire circuit system Impact; Cables and busbars are unavailable power equipment and important equipment for normal power transmission. No matter which electrical equipment is missing, the substation cannot run smoothly. With the continuous improvement of people’s material living standards, the demand for electricity has gradually expanded, the load of various electrical equipment has increased, and various quality problems have gradually emerged during the operation. Therefore, relevant personnel must strengthen Quality control of electrical equipment in substations.
Transformer construction process
Transformer is an important equipment that needs to be installed in the substation, and its quality is related to the overall operation safety of the substation. From the perspective of the appearance characteristics of the transformer, it is large and heavy. In order to lift it to the designated area, some auxiliary equipment such as rails and jacks need to be used when lifting. Moreover, in the process of hoisting, corresponding protective measures should be taken to prevent the transformer from being knocked and damaging its performance. Therefore, in the actual lifting, the stability of the center of gravity must be ensured, and the equipment must be lifted slowly and easily to avoid damage to the equipment. In addition, carefully check the position of the oil level observation hole to see if it meets the standard. After the equipment reaches the construction site, it must be carefully checked, and only qualified products can be installed. In this process, the following work needs to be done: (1) Before the formal disassembly, you want to lift the oil tank of the transformer; (2) Dismantle the transformer according to the standard specification process, for the sake of better restoration in the future, Relevant personnel need to record all steps of dismantling when they are actually dismantling. (3) Strictly follow the steps of dismantling to restore, do not miss any small accessories in the transformer. At the same time, in order to ensure the firmness of the bolt connection, when the bolt is used, the bolts need to be connected, installed, and tightened in order. (4) Installation of accessories on the transformer. When installing accessories, in order to avoid the main body of the transformer being exposed to the air, allowing moisture to enter the transformer and affecting the performance of the internal equipment, the time when the equipment is exposed to the air should be controlled, generally not more than 8h to reach the specified time. Seal with plastic film and flush the pipeline with insulating oil of up to standard quality. At the same time, the valve should be carefully checked and cleaned with clean gauze to make the valve more flexible. In addition, the connection position of the valve and the bolt should be well sealed to avoid problems such as loosening. When installing accessories, in order to make the transformer oil filling and power transmission work smoothly, the initial parameters of the accessories must be set. Especially for some large-scale transformers, vacuum drying is a very critical part. Before the actual operation, the isolation valves of the accessories and the oil tank are opened, while the oil storage cabinet and the body valve are closed.
Construction Technology of Transformer
Because the transformer is large and heavy, it is lifted in the same way as the transformer during transportation. The installation method adopts the method of distribution and transportation. The installation of transformers needs to be installed in strict accordance with the number, and it is necessary to ensure that no oxide layer appears at the connection of each component. In order to prevent the appearance of the oxide layer when installing each component, it is necessary to apply a separation layer to the attachment connection. After completing the installation task of the transformer, the verticality should be adjusted so that it is in a standard position, and the transformer should be fixed with bolts. In addition, in order to ensure that the transformer shell is not charged, its base must be grounded. In the process of grounding installation, it is necessary to control the cross section of the grounding wire so that it meets the requirements of the design specifications. It should also be noted that, when installing the graded insulation transformer, the ground lead terminal of the winding must be firmly connected to ensure its good conduction performance.
Construction technology of cable
Before the actual laying of the cable, the purpose of each cable should be divided and installed in order in strict accordance with the requirements. At the same time, it is necessary to formulate a corresponding construction plan based on the actual situation of the substation and the direction of the cable trench. Pay attention to the following issues when laying the cable: (1) To ensure the quality and safety of the cable. When the cable enters the construction site, in order to ensure that the quality and quantity of the cable meet the construction requirements, in addition to a comprehensive inspection of the cable type and specifications, the relevant personnel must also use a 1000V megohmmeter to test its insulation performance. At the same time, it is also necessary to make an indication board containing relevant information such as model number and voltage for the cable. (2) Determine the distribution of cable supports according to the voltage level. (3) In order to lay the cable line to meet the requirements of the standard, it is necessary to check the parameters such as the length and thickness of the cable line, and clarify the laying sequence of the cable line. At the same time, it is necessary to design a cross-sectional view of the cable, and the content of the cable trench, bracket position and other standard numbers in the figure. (4) When laying concretely, it is necessary to ensure the similarity of the type and diameter of the cable laying on the same level. In order to improve the quality and safety of the laying, the arrangement of the cable wires in the cable trench must be neat, and there must be no crossover problems. Therefore, when determining the laying path, the relevant personnel should conduct a comprehensive inspection of the arrangement of the lines in the cable trench, especially the cable lines at the intersection.
In short, the substation is a very important infrastructure in my country, and the installation quality of electrical equipment is related to the operation quality and safety of the entire substation. Therefore, relevant personnel should pay enough attention to the installation of electrical equipment in substations, fully implement the installation work in all links, install and construct in strict accordance with the requirements of relevant technical standards, and improve the installation quality and level of electrical equipment in substations.
Straws making machines are highly reliable they are often handed down through the families. An aged equipment that a great grandfather once owned may be discovered resting in the basement of a great grandson’s bathroom today. The equipment you bought when you first got hired may be something you dream of gifting to your girl when she wants to move with a family of her own.
The bellow three-stage guide will explain to you where to find replacement straws making machine parts to keep that machine usable for as long as possible.
1. Read the instructions
Ideally you preserved the instructions that came with your sewing machine, but if not you can look for some full instructions online at the equipment website. The instructions available online for nothing are for more upgraded models of straws making machines, but you can buy instructions of older machines from the web store when you think it’s absolutely necessary. You will need to search through a list of serial numbers to find your instructions on the internet. This is very important if you can discover a piece of your instructions here, but if that’s not the case then decide whether you think you absolutely require the instruction. If you are sure of which component you require to get your straws making machine on the operate again, then you won’t be required to book the instruction. You can certainly contact an expert if you aren’t sure of the component.
If you do have a copy of your manual or can buy it online, look for the page that provides guides for buying replacement components. If there is a email, contact and wait what rate they are selling the component for and decide whether it is currently available or if there will be an invoice for the part.
2. Shopping on the web
As soon as you understand what straws making machine component you need to make your equipment usable, check out online and look for a number of web retailers offering that matching component. You need to check the rate and ensure that these online retailers you found out are credible and responsible with shipment fees. You should look for quite a few website to ensure you are dealing with the best retailer and the most manageable rate on logistic. It is critical to inspect serial numbers carefully to make sure that you are ordering straws making machine component for the exact model you have. Just because serial numbers are close together or you know one equipment was in the same series as another, it doesn’t indicate those equipment are compatible with the same size and form factor of the components you plan to replace.
3. Buy universal parts
The store for universal parts that can be installed on straws making machine parts is expanding. There are some components that are sold under various brand names that will work with a number of series of straws making machines. You need to inspect the serial numbers these components are intended to work with to make sure it will be functional on the same machine you have. Most straws making machine parts are very easy to discover and are sold online at affordable rate. They can be shipped right to your household so you don’t even need to leave the house to look for them!